The Jupyter Notebook is a web application that allows you to create and share documents that contain live code, equations, visualizations, and explanatory text. Uses include data cleaning and transformation, numerical simulation, statistical modeling, machine learning, and much more.
QGIS (previously known as "Quantum GIS") is a cross-platform free and open source desktop geographic information system application that provides data viewing, editing, and analysis capabilities.
ArcGIS is a comprehensive system that allows people to collect, organize, manage, analyze, communicate, and distribute geographic information. As the world's leading platform for building and using geographic information systems, ArcGIS is used by people all over the world to put geographic knowledge to work in government, business, science, education, and media.