Abstract: Array programming provides a powerful, compact, expressive syntax for accessing, manipulating, and operating on data in vectors, matrices, and higher-dimensional arrays. NumPy is the primary array programming library for the Python language. It plays an essential role in research analysis pipelines in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, astronomy, geoscience, biology, psychology, material science, engineering, finance, and economics. For example, in astronomy, NumPy was an important part of the software stack used in the discovery of gravitational waves and the first imaging of a black hole. Here we show how a few fundamental array concepts lead to a simple and powerful programming paradigm for organizing, exploring, and analyzing scientific data. NumPy is the foundation upon which the entire scientific Python universe is constructed. It is so pervasive that several projects, targeting audiences with specialized needs, have developed their own NumPy-like interfaces and array objects. Because of its central position in the ecosystem, NumPy increasingly plays the role of an interoperability layer between these new array computation libraries.
Array Programming with NumPy
Charles R. Harris, K. Jarrod Millman, Stéfan J. van der Walt, Ralf Gommers, Pauli Virtanen, David Cournapeau, Eric Wieser, Julian Taylor, Sebastian Berg, Nathaniel J. Smith, Robert Kern, Matti Picus, Stephan Hoyer, Marten H. van Kerkwijk, Matthew Brett, Allan Haldane, Jaime Fernández del Río, Mark Wiebe, Pearu Peterson, Pierre Gérard-Marchant, Kevin Sheppard, Tyler Reddy, Warren Weckesser, Hameer Abbasi, Christoph Gohlke, Travis E. Oliphant