Computing water flow through complex landscapes, Part 3: Fill-Spill-Merge: Flow routing in depression hierarchies

Richard Barnes, Kerry L. Callaghan, and Andrew D. Wickert

Earth Surface Dynamics
May 5, 2020

Abstract: Depressions – inwardly-draining regions – are common to many landscapes. When there is sufficient moisture, depressions take the form of lakes and wetlands; otherwise, they may be dry. Hydrological flow models used in geomorphology, hydrology, planetary science, soil and water conservation, and other fields often eliminate depressions through filling or breaching; however, this can produce unrealistic results. Models that retain depressions, on the other hand, are often undesirably expensive to run. In previous work we began to address this by developing a depression hierarchy data structure to capture the full topographic complexity of depressions in a region. Here, we extend this work by presenting a Fill-Spill-Merge algorithm that utilizes our depression hierarchy to rapidly process and distribute runoff. Runoff fills depressions, which then overflow and spill into their neighbors. If both a depression and its neighbor fill, they merge. We provide a detailed explanation of the algorithm as well as results from two sample study areas. In these case studies, the algorithm runs 90–2600× faster (with a 2000–63 000× reduction in compute time) than the commonly-used Jacobi iteration and produces a more accurate output. Complete, well-commented, open-source code is available on Github and Zenodo.

Featured Fellows

Richard Barnes

Energy & Resources Group, EECS
BIDS Alum – Data Science Fellow